Synephrine

Product name: Synephrine

Source:Citrus sinensis 
Synonym: Sympathol, Oxedrine
CAS NO.: 94-07-5
M.F. &M. W. : C9H13NO2; 167.20 
Appearance : off White powder

Test method:HPLC

About Synephrine

 

Synephrine, or, more specifically, p-synephrine, is an alkaloid, occurring naturally in some plants and animals, and also in approved drugs products as its m-substituted analog known as neo-synephrine.

p-Synephrine (or formerly Sympatol and oxedrine [BAN]) and m-synephrine are known for their longer acting adrenergic effects compared to norepinephrine

 

Synephrine (or oxedrine) is extracted from the immature fruits of Citrus aurantium, and its common names are Bitter Orange, Sour Orange, and Zhi shi.
Synephrine usually is used as a drug for weight loss. It has gained significant popularity as an alternative , a related substance which has been made illegal or restricted in many countries due to its use as a precursor in the illicit manufacture of the highly addictive substance In application of traditional Chinese medical science, it is used to dispel bloating and a lump in the abdomen and phlegm, and to cureedema, constipation, gastroptosis, prolapse of uterus and rectocele.

It works on Anti- tumour, preventing osteoporosis, reducing cholesterin and protecting heart.Also it is used for nerve protection and preventing diseases of degeneration of nerve, relieving menopausal symptoms of women, improving bone metabolism and protecting cardiovascular system, etc.

 

Function:
Weight Loss
Citrus aurantium contains the plant chemical, synephrine, which is similar to epinephrine in its chemical structure, and is the reason citrus aurantium has been used in weight loss products after was taken off the market. Synephrine stimulates the nervous system, and is used to decrease appetite.

Digestion
Citrus aurantium is used in herbal medicines as a general digestive tonic and can be prescribed for indigestion, constipation, low stomach acid, nausea, flatulence and stomach cramps.

Citrus aurantium is one of many plants that can be used for the extraction of Orange Blossom oil and Orange Flower water. It also can be found under the name Neroli petalae, though it is far less fragrant than true Neroli oil.

 

Application:

1) As a dietary supplement designed to support calorie burning (thermogenesis) and resulting weight loss.
2) It also helps to clean the blood and has been reported to dissolve kidney stones.

 

 

For more product information pls contact email sales09@staherb.cn

 

 

SPECIFICATION

 

Items

Standards

Results

Physical Analysis

   

Description

White Powder Complies
Assay Synephrine 98% (HPLC) 98.12%
Mesh Size 100 % pass 80 mesh Complies
Ash  5.0% 3.85%
Loss on Drying  5.0% 3.45%
Chemical Analysis    
Heavy Metal  10.0 mg/kg Complies
Pb  2.0 mg/kg Complies
As  1.0 mg/kg Complies
Hg  1.0 mg/kg Complies
Microbiological Analysis    
Residue of Pesticide Negative Negative
Total Plate Count  1000cfu/g Complies
Yeast&Mold  100cfu/g Complies
E.coil Negative Negative
Salmonella Negative Negative

 

References:

 

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    Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM et al (2009) Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sport Exerc 41:459–471.

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    Bouchonville M, Armamento-Villareal R, Shah K et al (2014) Weight loss, exercise or both and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese older adults: results of a randomized controlled trial. Int J Obes 38:423–431. 

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    Kim J-H, Park Y (2016) Combined effects of phytochemicals and exercise on fatty acid oxidation. J Exerc Nutr Biochem 20:20–26. 

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    Türközü D, Tek NA (2017) A minireview of effects of green tea on energy expenditure. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57:254–258.  

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    Gutiérrez-Hellín J, Del Coso J (2018) Effects of p-synephrine and caffeine ingestion on substrate oxidation during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 

  7. 7.

    Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M (2012) A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci 9:527–538. 

  8. 8.

    Allison DB, Cutter G, Poehlman ET et al (2005) Exactly which synephrine alkaloids does Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) contain? Int J Obes 29:443–446. 

  9. 9.

    Stohs SJ (2017) Safety, efficacy, and mechanistic studies regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) extract and p-synephrine. Phyther Res 31:1463–1474. 

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    Gutiérrez-Hellín J, Del Coso J (2018) Dose-response effects of p-synephrine on fat oxidation rate during exercise of increasing intensity. Phyther Res. 

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    Gutiérrez-Hellín J, Del Coso J (2016) Acute p-synephrine ingestion increases fat oxidation rate during exercise. Br J Clin Pharmacol 82:362–368. 

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    Edvardsen E, Hem E, Anderssen SA (2014) End criteria for reaching maximal oxygen uptake must be strict and adjusted to sex and age: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One 9:e85276. 

  13. 13.

    Shara M, Stohs SJ, Smadi MM (2018) Safety evaluation of p-synephrine following 15 days of oral administration to healthy subjects: a clinical study. Phyther Res 32:125–131. 

  14. 14.

    Ratamess NA, Bush JA, Kang J et al (2016) The effects of supplementation with p-synephrine alone and in combination with caffeine on metabolic, lipolytic, and cardiovascular responses during resistance exercise. J Am Coll Nutr 35:657–669.

  15. 15.

    Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M (2011) A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2011:482973.